The majority of miscarriages are caused by foetal genetic abnormalities. Genetic abnormalities causes miscarriages and, unfortunately, nothing can be done to prevent that.
However, genetic abnormalities do not cause all miscarriages. If you have had a miscarriage, work with your health care provider to determine the cause of your miscarriage and to plan a future pregnancy. Miscarriages are quite common. Approximately 10% of early pregnancies result in a miscarriage before the twentieth week. The true number of miscarriages may be even higher, because many women miscarry before realising they’re pregnant. A healthy lifestyle both before and during pregnancy may be beneficial.

WHY DOES A MISCARRIAGE OCCUR?
It is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of a miscarriage. Most of the time, the cause is something you couldn’t have avoided, which means you couldn’t have avoided the miscarriage either. Doctors are rarely able to identify a problem that increases the likelihood of a miscarriage. In that case, treating the problem may help prevent another miscarriage.

THE FIRST TRIMESTER
Approximately 80% of miscarriages occur during the first trimester. The first trimester is defined as the period between weeks 1 and 13.

The following are some of the most common causes of miscarriage in the first trimester:

Anomalies of the genes

More than half of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosomal issues in the foetus. If your body detects that the foetus has damage or missing chromosomes, the pregnancy will be terminated.

Clots of blood form. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a condition that causes blood clots that can end a pregnancy. Medication can be used to treat this condition and prevent miscarriage.

Ectopic pregnancy

This potentially dangerous but uncommon pregnancy occurs when the foetus begins to develop outside of the womb.

Ectopic pregnancies cannot be saved and are a medical emergency that must be treated immediately.

Placental issues

If the foetus and placenta are incompatible, the pregnancy may end in miscarriage. Similarly, uterine defects, such as an abnormal shape, can result in the premature termination of a pregnancy.

THIRD TRIMESTER
Miscarriage is much less common in this later stage of pregnancy, from weeks 13 to 24. If it does occur, the cause is most likely related to external health conditions or maternal health issues.
These second trimester issues that may result in pregnancy loss are as follows:

Infection.

Infections of the uterus or cervix can cause miscarriage. Similarly, food-borne illnesses can put a woman at risk of miscarriage.

Chronic illnesses. Diabetes and high blood pressure, for example, increase a woman’s risk of miscarriage. If the condition is not properly treated or managed, the risk increases.

Thyroid condition.

Untreated thyroid conditions increase the likelihood of miscarriage.

Autoimmune diseases: Lupus and other autoimmune diseases can cause miscarriage.
Obstacles to the uterus or cervix.
Miscarriage can be caused by fibroids or an abnormally shaped womb.

Factors of lifestyle: Smoking, second-hand smoke, alcohol consumption, and drug use can all have an impact on the development of a foetus. Caffeine addiction can also be a problem.

Environmental factors: Miscarriage can be caused by exposure to certain chemicals or hazards. Mercury, solvents, paint thinners, pesticides, and heavy metals are among them.

THE THIRD TRIMESTER
Miscarriage is more commonly referred to as stillbirth at this late stage of a pregnancy. The same factors that can lead to a miscarriage in the first two trimesters of a pregnancy can also lead to a pregnancy loss in the third trimester. However, determining the precise cause is frequently difficult.
These problems may include:

Preterm labour or the separation of the placenta from the womb are examples of pregnancy complications.

One in every ten stillbirths is caused by a birth defect.

Trusted Source is caused by a genetic or structural birth defect.

Other causes of miscarriages are:

Age. Women over the age of 35 are more likely to miscarry than younger women. At the age of 35, you have a 20% chance. At the age of 40, the risk is approximately 40%. And at the age of 45, it’s around 80%.
Miscarriages in the past. Women who have had two or more miscarriages in a row are at a higher risk of miscarriage.
Chronic illnesses. Women with chronic conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes, are more likely to miscarry.

Uterine or cervical issues Miscarriage risk may be increased by certain uterine conditions or weak cervical tissues (incompetent cervix).
Tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs are all prohibited. Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to miscarry than nonsmokers. Miscarriage risk is also increased by heavy alcohol and illicit drug use.
Weight. An increased risk of miscarriage has been linked to being underweight or overweight.
Prenatal tests that are invasive. Some invasive prenatal genetic tests, such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, are associated with a slight risk of miscarriage.

Complications
Some women who miscarry develop a uterine infection. This is known as a septic miscarriage. Among the signs and symptoms of this infection are:

Fever\sChills
tenderness in the lower abdomen
Vaginal discharge that smells bad

Prevention
There is often nothing you can do to prevent a miscarriage. Simply concentrate on taking care of yourself and your child:

Seek routine prenatal care.
Smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illicit drugs are all known miscarriage risk factors.
Take a multivitamin every day.
Caffeine consumption should be limited. According to a recent study, drinking more than two caffeinated beverages per day appeared to be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

Can you stop miscarriage once it started?

In most cases, no matter what trimester you are in, you cannot stop a miscarriage once it has begun. Miscarriage symptoms usually indicate that the pregnancy has ended.

In some cases, the symptoms may indicate a condition known as threatened miscarriage. This can happen to women who are less than 20 weeks pregnant. You may experience heavy bleeding and believe your pregnancy is coming to an end.
However, if a foetal heartbeat is still present, the pregnancy can continue even if there are signs of an impending miscarriage. However, it is critical that you collaborate with your doctor to help prevent a full miscarriage.

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